THE DIARY OF ANNE FRANK
The original title of the work known as "The Diary of Anne Frank" is "Anne Frank: The Diary of a Young Girl".
The diary of one of the most famous Holocaust victims, the girl Anne Frank, was first published in 1947 in the Netherlands.
In that diary, she recorded her thoughts, feelings, and experiences on a daily basis from June 12, 1942, to August 1, 1944.
This is the story of her life in hiding from the Nazis, which she wrote in her diary, which survived because she died of typhus in a concentration camp.
The story begins in 1942 when World War II was raging at full force and European Jews were fiercely persecuted in countries under fascist rule.
The leader of the persecution of Jews was the German Führer (fascist leader) Adolf Hitler, who declared this people as enemies of the state and the people.
Other fascists joined his ideology of ANTI-SEMITISM.
ANTI-SEMITISM is an ideology of hatred towards Semites, an ancient group of people to which Jews belonged and which originated many centuries ago.
The ideology of ANTI-SEMITISM has persecuted Jews throughout history, but never as cruelly and massively as under Hitler and the fascists.
Unfortunately, ANTI-SEMITISM exists in various forms today as well, supporting hatred towards this people based on prejudices.
FULL BOOK SUMMARY
- In 1942, for her thirteenth birthday, the girl Anne Frank received a notebook, which she turned into a diary.
She named it Kitty because it served as her best friend, to whom she could confess all her thoughts and feelings about teenage things, family matters,
and especially the difficult life under the fascists who ruthlessly persecuted all Jews.
In addition to her father and mother, Anne also had an older sister named Margot, who was a much better student than her.
However, despite her family and many friends, she felt somewhat lonely, so her diary was her best refuge in loneliness.
- At the beginning of the diary, she gives a brief introduction, in which she says that she used to live in Frankfurt with her family,
but due to the rise of fascism in Germany, they had to move to the Netherlands, to Amsterdam. Her relatives also had to emigrate abroad.
After 1940, the war came to the Netherlands and it soon fell under the occupation of Germany. Things then rapidly deteriorated for the Jews,
laws were enacted that prohibited Jews from socializing with Christians, using public transportation, owning cars, visiting theaters, cinemas, or any public places...
Jews had to wear a yellow star, they had to be in their homes by 8 o'clock, after that time they couldn't even sit in their own gardens.
Jews could only attend Jewish schools and were only allowed to buy groceries in designated stores.
- Under such conditions, Anne and the other Jews tried to live a normal life as much as possible. Her father was still working and Anne was going to school.
In the diary, she describes her experiences and adventures at school, where she is known as a big chatterbox and talks about boys who are interested in her.
- The situation continues to worsen, the isolation of Jews intensifies further, and Anne's father is no longer able to go to work.
Ana is, of course, worried about such things, wondering how it will all end.
Her father tries to cheer her up, saying that he and his friends, anticipating even harder times to come, think ahead about certain things,
and advises her to live her young life as carefree as possible until then.
- Soon, a call came from the German army, who wanted to take Anne's sister Margot away.
In order to prevent that, the Frank family had to hide in a place where the Germans couldn't find them. The people who worked with her father,
the Dutchmen Kraler and Koophuis, helped them find a secret hiding place. It was in a house that had a warehouse on the ground floor and an office for the company above.
Behind the office, there was a hidden apartment where the Frank family settled. After moving in, they masked the windows and all signs that indicated someone lived there.
They had to be very quiet so that the Germans wouldn't discover them and shoot them. They also made sure to leave behind traces that would convince the Germans that they had moved to Belgium.
Kraler and Koophuis, two girls from the company, Miep and Elli, and other helpers delivered them food, medicine, and the most necessary things, as much as possible without being noticed.
- In the same year, on August 13th, the Van Daan family joined them, who, just like the Frank family, had nowhere to go and needed a hiding place.
Their only son, Peter, moved in with them. At first impression, he wasn't likable to Anne because he was lazy and a hypochondriac. But he quickly admits that he likes her.
They immediately established strict house rules: bedtime was at 10 PM, waking up at 7:30 AM, except on holidays and Sundays when they could sleep more.
The radio could only be listened to after 6 PM, and they listened to everything except German stations. Bathing was also limited to Sundays only.
But the most important rule was silence because any noise could attract attention.
- Anne and Peter tried to continue their education and spent their time learning English and French. Anne hated algebra (mathematics) but loved history and mythology.
She read every book they managed to deliver from the library. She loved biographies and knew the family trees of all royal families.
She also loved famous actresses and collected their pictures.
- At first, the arrival of newcomers was pleasant. Everyone got along well and tried to fit in and organize their communal life as best as possible.
However, having many people in a cramped space inevitably led to tension. That's when the first arguments started because there was plenty of time but little space.
Anne seemed to be in conflict with everyone, and it was hardest for her. She was the youngest, and everyone could criticize and lecture her.
She especially didn't get along with Mrs. Van Daan, who was a talkative and foolish woman and always wanted to be the center of attention.
Every time she attacked Anne, Anne stubbornly fought back, getting herself into trouble because she would then appear rude.
- Terrifying news arrived from the outside about the persecution of Jews.
The Germans went from house to house in the city, searching for and taking away all the Jews they found.
It was known that they took them to concentration camps, where they tortured and humiliated them in terrible conditions, and ultimately killed them by suffocating them in gas chambers.
Everyone hiding in the secret shelter was dying of fear of being discovered, even from the simplest visits by any civilian.
- From November 17th, they also received their eighth tenant, dentist Albert Düssel, who was also a Jew in need of shelter.
It was decided that he would share the same room with Ana. Soon, he too, went from being a pleasant gentleman to a boring complainer,
irritated by Anne's talkativeness and her freedom to openly express her dislikes.
In the end, Anne had to seek help from her father, who took her side and asked Düssel to show consideration towards her, as she was still a child.
- The year is now 1943. The war is being felt more strongly, local resistance forces are carrying out their actions and sabotages,
English aviation bombings have begun, destroying houses where many people have perished, which brings additional fears for Ana and the others in hiding.
They listen to somewhat favorable news on the radio, that fascist Italy has capitulated, and that liberators could land in Holland, but they still have to wait for that.
In the meantime, money and food are becoming scarce, and it is increasingly difficult to obtain them. Poverty outside is growing, people and starving children in rags roam the streets.
At night, thieves break into the building with the shelter, attempting to steal things, and worse, they could discover that they are hiding inside.
If the police were to come, they would be exposed and sent to a camp.
- Apart from sleeping and cooking, the days in the shelter were filled with listening to the radio and endless sarcastic discussions and quarrels.
Ana was the most desperate of all. She was particularly affected by her relationship with her mother, who did not show the maternal understanding that she desperately needed as a little girl.
She thought and mourned for her friends who were taken by the Germans, and she missed her deceased grandmother...
At night, when no one could hear her, she cried softly.
- It is the year 1944. Anne is slowly growing into a young woman, which everyone around her notices and begins to treat her as an adult.
She starts developing feelings for Peter. The two of them begin to shyly get closer, spend more time together, and slowly fall in love.
She discovers that Peter is a decent and pleasant young man, and she also finds him unexpectedly insightful and intelligent.
They exchange their first kisses. This helps her feel happy even though they lived in difficult conditions.
- Outside, the news about the political and war situation is getting better, with more and more of Europe being liberated.
However, the German occupiers in the Netherlands become even more cruel. Under difficult circumstances, many Dutch people themselves become cruel and unrecognizable,
and the understanding for the Jewish people diminishes. Thieves break into the building again, and after them, the police come, causing great fear and confusion as they almost discover the hiding place.
Less and less food reaches the hiding place, so starvation becomes constant, and the little food they had was of extremely poor quality.
The inhabitants of the hiding place became so desperate that they wondered if it wouldn't be better for the Germans to shoot them all, to end the torture and misery that seemed endless.
- On the radio, they announced that on June 6, 1944, in Normandy, the Allied invasion of France and other parts of Europe held by Germany began.
In the following days, news of victories and liberated territories spread. An assassination attempt was made on Hitler, carried out by his own Germans, but he miraculously survived.
In the secret hiding place, optimism began to grow that freedom would soon come, which meant the end of hiding in the shelter and the long-desired return to normal life.
Helpers from the outside somehow delivered strawberries and peas that alleviated their starvation.
- Anne leaves her final entry in the diary on August 1, 1944, in which, as if sensing it is her last, she speaks only about herself. She calls herself a "bundle of contradictions".
She talks about her conflicting nature, about being an educated know-it-all, a rebel, a cheerful, talkative, mischievous, and lively girl.
She is often considered unbearable simply because she speaks and does what she thinks. She mentions that there is another
Anne that people don't know, who is often lonely, shy, and misunderstood, who sometimes struggles or fails to control her emotions.
She keeps this side of herself hidden from everyone, always presenting herself as a happy, superficial girl full of confidence and life.
But the real Ana is much more sensitive and tender, and that is the whole truth about her.
- On August 4, the police discovered the secret hiding place and arrested all its inhabitants, who, along with the two main helpers, Mr. Kraler and Mr. Koophuis, were taken to concentration camps.
The belongings from the secret hiding place were looted, but Anne's diary remained among the scattered newspapers and papers.
Only Anne's father and the helpers Kraler and Koophuis returned alive from the camp, reuniting with their families.
Anne died in the camp from typhus in 1945, just two months before the liberation.